101 Concepts for the Level I Exam
Concept 31: Tools Used to Implement Monetary Policy
The three tools available to central banks to control the money supply are:
- Borrowing from central bank:
- Banks can borrow from central bank to meet shortfall in reserves at a rate called discount rate or refinancing rate or repo rate. This is facilitated through repurchase agreements.
- A lower repo rate increases money supply and encourages lending, this lowers interest rates.
- On the other hand, a higher repo rate decreases money supply and reduces lending, this increases interest rates.
- Banks can lend to each other overnight loan reserves at a rate called federal funds rate (for US banks).
- Fed uses open market operations to move it to the targeted rate.
Open market operations
- Central bank buys securities →Investors and banks get cash →increases banks excess reserves → increases money supply and encourages lending →lowers interest rates.
- Central bank sells securities → Investors and banks pay cash → lowers bank excess reserves → decreases money supply and reduces lending → increases interest rates.
- Frequently used in US.
- Represents the deposits to be maintained to meet withdrawal limits.
- Increase in reserve requirement →decreases money supply and reduces lending →increases interest rates.
- Decrease in reserve requirement →increases money supply and encourages lending → decreases interest rates.